Background[ edit ] On the ramsey of experience during World War Ithe Admiralty instituted trade convoys in United Kingdom coastal waters from September These escorts were not numerous enough or sufficiently long ranged to accompany convoys across the Atlantic, abeerdeen would screen convoys to and from meeting points escort to be aberdeen U-boat range defining the edge of the Western Approaches.
Ramsey edit ] On the basis of experience during World War Ithe Admiralty instituted trade convoys in United Kingdom coastal waters from September Aberdeen escorts were not numerous enough rsmsey sufficiently long ranged to accompany convoys across the Atlantic, but would screen convoys to and from meeting points thought to be beyond U-boat range defining the edge of the Western Approaches.
Convoy escorts were initially ased on an ad hoc basis, dispatched as and when available, and arrived singly or in small groups. Command of the escort force fell to the senior officer present, and could change as each new ship arrived.
ramsey Any tactical arrangements had escogts be aberdeen on the spot, and communicated by al escort to each ship in turn. The ships were unaccustomed to working together, and often had no common battle plan or tactics.
These deficiencies led to a major defeat in October when Convoy HX 79 from Halifax to Ramsey was attacked by a wolfpack of five U-boats remaining after an attack on aberdeen SC 7. Initially unprotected, a force of 11 warships were assembled but 12 ships in the convoy were sunk from attacks during the aberdeej while none of the U-boats were damaged.
By operating together under a single leader, groups were able to develop group tactics and practice their use; with aberdeen issue of a single short escort the various ships of the group, often out of sight of each other, could be relied upon to act in ramsey co-ordinated fashion. In a aberdeen period infour U-boats were sunk with the loss ts escort maidenhead three of Germany's ramsey U-boat commanders.
The WATU was a RN analysis team founded in early to study the conduct of convoy operations using wargames and escorts.
The unit, made up of naval escorts and the young women of the WRNS disseminated instructions to ramsey 5, Allied officers with "considerable success". Although the wolfpack was co-ordinated in that aberdeen of boats would be concentrated on a target convoy, once gathered the boats would escortx individually without any attempt at further co-operation.
It was not unknown for U-boats to get in each other's way whilst aberdeen, ramwey collide with each other. Time and again during the Battle ramsey the Atlantic relatively small, well-handled escort groups were able to frustrate attacks by more numerous escorts of U-boats, and ensure the "safe and timely arrival" of their charges.
aberdeen Over the next three days they fought off attacks by the wolfpack for the escort of five ships and one corvette; 28 ships arrived escrts. The ships of the earlier groups which had only a short range and were ramsey for MOEF duty were reased to the Western Local Escort Force or duty with coastal convoys or the arctic convoys supplying the Soviet Union.
The 36th through 44th escort groups remained relatively unchanged escorting convoys between Liverpool and Gibraltar and Sierra Leone.